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CO2 Emissions


Measure emissiones of CO2 per kWh of energy produced, or emissions in g/km of your car. Enter the kWh produced by a year the nation’s electricity mix.

Energy kWhElectricity mixCO2grammes/kWhCO2 kg EmissionsCO2lbTOE ton oil equivalent
Calculation of CO2 to produce electricity in kWh  
CO2 emissions per kWh from electricity and heat  
Emissions of CO2, comparison between different energy sources   
km Transport: cars, vehicles CO2 g/km CO2 kilogram CO2 pound
Calculation of CO2 emissions from the car  
quantity Fuel combustion CO2 kg factor CO2 kilogram CO2 pound
How many kilograms of CO2 are emitted during combustion?  
quantity Unit Fuel Distance Unit CO2 g/km CO2 lb/mi
Calculation of actual emissions in g/km on your car  
CO2 Emis. Unit Distance Unit CO2 kilogram CO2 pound
Calculation of CO2 emitted in the life or one year of your car  

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Content

  CO2 Emissions

  Emissions of CO2 from transport vehicles

  How many kilograms of CO2 are emitted during combustion?

  Calculation of actual emissions in g/km on your car

  Emissions of CO2, comparison between different energy sources

  Grams CO2 per kWh of electricity

  CO2 emissions per kWh from electricity and heat

  Carbon footprint

  Comment

  References

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CO2 Emissions

The production of one kWh electricity can be made using different energy sources, each source can be characterized by a factor that indicates how many kilograms of CO2 are released into the atmosphere to produce 1 kWh electricity (these factors are changes that depend efficiency of the single station and the distribution network).
Some of the sources of energy are oil, natural gas, coal, municipal waste (thermal), enriched uranium (nuclear, gradients of water (hydroelectric), heat of the earth (geothermal), wind (wind), sun (photovoltaic, solar thermal), biomass, etc.
Every nation has a mix of power plants that use different energy sources, then the value of kg CO2/kWh will be different for each country, this factor can be used to calculate the kg of CO2 emissions avoided in the environment in the country where the equipment is installed PV.
gas CO2 in the atmosphere is the main cause of global warming, which directly affects the ’ increase earth’s temperature and climate change related.

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Emissions of CO2 from transport vehicles

To calculate the amount of CO2 produced by their car in a year, simply multiply the distance traveled in kilometers for the value of emissions g/km of CO2 your car.
In the car registration document in the data supplied by the manufacturer, you can find the data on emissions of anhydrite carbon dioxide (CO2) in grams per kilometer produced, expressed in (g/km), these are referred to the combined cycle , the real value depends on the type of use and your riding style.
For example, if we travel with our car utilitarian 15000 km this year and produces 110 g/km in a year we emit into the atmosphere 1650 kg of CO2, while an SUV with 230 g/km would have delivered 3450 kg of CO2.
At this moment in Europe’s road transport accounts for 25% of CO2 emissions to reduce air pollution, the most important factors are the average fuel consumption and fuel type.
The Biofuels instead of fossil fuel use the carbon in new organic material, then release CO2 recently removed from the atmosphere (closed cycle), while fossil fuel burning released carbon dioxide removed from the atmosphere millions of years ago, altering the balance exists.


Table 1:
Car type Petrolium Diesel LPG GPL
Compact 13812095
Sedam small 171135120
Sedam medium 195162135
Sedam large 265216184
SUV 218202152
4x4 small 285242200
4x4 large 345295240

Table 2:
FuelCombustion formulaDensity kg/l (lb/US gal)CO2 kg/l (lb/US gal) emissiones
Petrol gasoline 2 C8H18 + 25 O2 --> 16 CO2 + 18 H2O + 2636 kcal0.7197 kg/l (6.073 lb/gal)2.3035 kg/l (19.24 lb/US gal)
Diesel 4 C12H23 + 71 O2 --> 48 CO2 + 46 H2O + energy 0.832 kg/l (6.943 lb/gal)2.6256 kg/l (21.91 lb/US gal)
LPG GPL C3H8 + 5 O2 --> 3CO2 + 4 H2O + 531 kcal0.52 kg/l (4.34 lb/gal)3.0 kg/l (25.04 lb/US gal)
Methane CNG (compressed natural gas) CH4 CH2 + 2 O2 --> CO2 + 2 H2O + 891 kJ/mol 0.416 kg/l (3.47 lb/gal)2.750 kg/l (22.95 lb/US gal)
Methanol CH3OH CH2OH + 3/2 O2 --> CO2 + 2 H2O + energy 0.7918 kg/l (4.63 lb/gal)1.375 kg/l (11.47 lb/US gal)
Ethanol C2H5OH C2H5OH + 3 O2 --> 2 CO2 + 3 H2O + energy 0.789 kg/l (6.58 lb/gal)1.506 kg/l (12.57 lb/US gal)
Biodiesel C19H34O2 C19H34O2 + (53/2) O2 --> 19 CO2 + 17 H2O + energy 0.889 kg/l (7.42 lb/gal)2.839 kg/l (23.69 lb/US gal)
Biodiesel C20H40O2 C20H40O2 + 29 O2 --> 20 CO2 + 20 H20 + energy 0.884 kg/l (7.38 lb/gal)2.816 kg/l (23.5 lb/US gal)

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How many kilograms of CO2 are emitted during combustion?

If you do not know the value of g/km, another way to know the emissions of your vehicle is to measure the litres of fuel consumed. With a good approximation we can say that burning a litre of gasoline produces 2.3035 kg of CO2 (more details are in Table 2), the value depends on the mixture of hydrocarbons and the engine, but does not vary much. The weight gain due to the fact that we have considered only the fuel, but we need to add oxygen in the combustion O2.

Petrol gasoline, or benzin is composed of a mixture of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (an isomer of octane C8H18 [octane rating 100]) and n-heptane (C7H16 [octane rating 0]). Example of octane rating, petrol with the same knocking characteristics as a mixture of 95% iso-octane and 5% heptane would have an octane rating of 95.

Diesel is composed of about 75% saturated hydrocarbons (primarily paraffins including n, iso, and cycloparaffins), and 25% aromatic hydrocarbons (including naphthalenes and alkylbenzenes). The average chemical formula for common diesel fuel is C12H23, ranging approximately from C10H20 to C15H28.

Petrol (Gasoline): 2 C8H18 + 25 O2 --> 16 CO2 + 18 H2O + energy
2 mol C8H18(114 g/mol) --> 16 mol CO2(44 g/mol)   =>   2*114=228g --> 16*44=704g   =>   1000/228*704=3087.72g
1 kg of Petrol produce 3.088 kg of CO2.
1 litre of Petrol produce 2.22 kg of CO2.   (3087.72*0.7197=2224.64)

Diesel C12H23: 4 C12H23 + 71 O2 --> 48 CO2 + 46 H2O + energy
4 mol C50H93(167.3121 g/mol) --> 48 mol CO2(44 g/mol)   =>   4*167.3=669.25g --> 48*44=2112g   =>   1000/669.25*2112=3155.77g
1 kg of Diesel produce 3.16 kg of CO2.
1 litre of Diesel produce 2.63 kg of CO2.   (3155.8*0.832=2625.6)

Diesel C50H93: C50H93 + 193/4 O2 --> 50 CO2 + 93/2 H2O + energy
1 mol C50H93(694.27342 g/mol) --> 50 mol CO2(44 g/mol)   =>   694.27g --> 50*44=2200g   =>   1000/694.27*2200=3168.8g
1 kg of Diesel produce 3.17 kg of CO2.
1 litre of Diesel produce 2.64 kg of CO2.   (3168.8*0.832=2636.44)

LPG GPL: C3H8 + 5 O2 --> 3 CO2 + 4 H2O + energy
1 mol C3H8(44 g/mol) --> 3 mol CO2(44 g/mol)   =>   44g --> 3*44=132g   =>   1000/44*132=3000g
1 kg of LPG GPL produce 3 kg of CO2.
1 litre of GPL produce 1.56 kg of CO2.   (3000.0*0.52=1560.0)

Methane CNG (compressed natural gas): CH4 + 2 O2 --> CO2 + 2 H2O + energy
1 mol CH4(16 g/mol) --> 1 mol CO2(44 g/mol)   =>   16g --> 44g   =>   1000/16*44=2750g
1 kg of Methane produce 2.75 kg of CO2.

Methanol: CH3OH + 3/2 O2 --> CO2 + 2 H2O + energy
1 mol CH3OH(32 g/mol) --> 1 mol CO2(44 g/mol)   =>   32g --> 44g   =>   1000/32*44=1375g
1 kg of Methanol produce 1.38 kg of CO2.

Ethanol: C2H5OH + 3 O2 --> 2 CO2 + 3 H2O + energy
1 mol C2H5OH(46 g/mol) --> 2 mol CO2(44 g/mol)   =>   46g --> 88g   =>   1000/46*88=1913.04g
1 kg of Ethanol produce 1.91 kg of CO2.
1 litre of Ethanol produce 1.51 kg of CO2.   (1913.04*0.789=1509.4)

Biodiesel Methyl Linoleate: C19H34O2 + (53/2) O2 --> 19 CO2 + 17 H2O + energy
1 mol C19H34O2(294.4739 g/mol) --> 19 mol CO2(44 g/mol)   =>   294.4739g --> 836g   =>   1000/294.4739*836=2839g
1 kg of Biodiesel C19H34O2 produce 2.84 kg of CO2.
1 litre of Biodiesel C19H34O2 produce 2.524 kg of CO2.   (2839*0.889=2524)

Biodiesel Ethyl Stearate: C20H40O2 + 29 O2 --> 20 CO2 + 20 H20 + energy
1 mol C20H40O2(312.5323 g/mol) --> 20 mol CO2(44 g/mol)   =>   312.5323g --> 880g   =>   1000/312.5323*880=2816g
1 kg of Biodiesel C20H40O2 produce 2.82 kg of CO2.
1 litre of Biodiesel C20H40O2 produce 2.489 kg of CO2.   (2816*0.884=2489)

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Calculation of actual emissions in g/km on your car

Emissions from transport vehicles (cars, motorcycles, trucks, buses, etc.) depend on the fuel type and above the average consumer.
Burning fuel produces carbon dioxide and water and not exist a pot that can reduce its value, so it's important to choose cars with lower fuel consumption.
The emission data provided by the car manufacturers refer to standard reproducible tests, but to get the exact and real data you should use the converter on it.

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Emissions of CO2, comparison between different energy sources

These data represent the average kg CO2 emitted to produce one kWh of electricity and heat using various energy sources, the data vary depending on the performance of power plants.


FuelCO2 g/kWh
1Other bituminous coal840
2Sub bituminous coal930
3Lignite brown coal950
4Patent fuel860
5Natural gas380

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Grams CO2 per kWh of electricity

The grams of CO2 emitted per kWh electricity produced, depending on the mix of energy sources used to produce electricity.


Country CO2 g/kWhel
1USA535
2Germany565
3Italy531

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CO2 emissions per kWh from electricity and heat

The emission of carbon anhydrite grammes CO2 per kWh electricity produced, varies greatly among nations and depends on the mix of energy sources used to produce energy.
CO2 emissions per kWh from electricity and heat generation, consider the CO2 emissions from fossil fuels consumed for electricity, combined heat and power and main activity heat plants divided by the output of electricity and heat generated from fossil fuels, nuclear, hydro (excl. pumped storage), geothermal, solar and biomass. Both main activity producers and autoproducers have been included in the calculation of the emissions.
If we considered only the production of electricity (no heat) values will be greater.

CO2 g/kWhel
Source: International Energy Agency (IEA)

2010 World 528.6578
1North America481.1105
2Europe290.3229
3Asia Oceania481.2633
4OECD Total433.4404
5Non-OECD Total627.6285
6Canada186.4102
7Chile409.6667
8Mexico454.8341
9United States522.2489
10OECD Americas478.9499
11Australia840.9243
12Israel688.9622
13Japan416.4083
14Korea533.0734
15New Zealand150.2037
16OECD Asia Oceania500.5803
17Austria187.8844
18Belgium219.5577
19Czech Republic589.0224
20Denmark359.6725
21Estonia1014.1421
22Finland229.4806
23France79.0921
24Germany460.8882
25Greece718.2638
26Hungary317.0834
27Iceland0.183
28Ireland458.0438
29Italy406.309
30Luxembourg409.8438
31Netherlands414.8527
32Norway16.6943
33Poland781.3546
34Portugal255.3142
35Slovak Republic197.0439
36Slovenia324.905
37Spain237.978
38Sweden29.5724
39Switzerland27.3076
40Turkey459.5982
41United Kingdom457.3677
42OECD Europe330.8274
43Albania2.1454
44Armenia92.2454
45Azerbaijan438.7715
46Belarus449.417
47Bosnia and Herzegovina722.9657
48Bulgaria535.4592
49Croatia236.3674
50Cyprus697.0775
51Georgia68.7419
52Gibraltar761.6045
53Kazakhstan403.2982
54Kosovo1287.4872
55Kyrgyzstan59.1458
56Latvia119.7106
57Lithuania337.4069
58FYR of Macedonia685.2519
59Malta872.318
60Republic of Moldova517.4757
61Montenegro405.3279
62Romania413.4417
63Russian Federation383.6011
64Serbia717.79
65Tajikistan14.2945
66Turkmenistan953.5463
67Ukraine391.6536
68Uzbekistan549.8789
69Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia407.3174
70Algeria547.8543
71Angola440.0713
72Benin719.6667
73Botswana2517.4792
74Cameroon207.1761
75Congo142.2236
76Dem. Rep. of Congo2.9137
77Cote d Ivoire445.3024
78Egypt449.8728
79Eritrea646.3087
80Ethiopia7.0129
81Gabon383.013
82Ghana259.3119
83Kenya274.1183
84Libya885.4182
85Morocco717.7742
86Mozambique0.6478
87Namibia196.7547
88Nigeria404.9281
89Senegal636.9345
90South Africa926.5368
91Sudan343.5045
92United Rep. of Tanzania329.3565
93Togo195.3692
94Tunisia462.6968
95Zambia2.6825
96Zimbabwe660.1912
97Other Africa476.5313
98Africa637.4079
99Bangladesh592.6142
100Brunei Darussalam716.8446
101Cambodia803.7525
102Chinese Taipei623.8011
103India912.3916
104Indonesia709.077
105DPR of Korea465.082
106Malaysia727.3757
107Mongolia948.5164
108Myanmar261.9749
109Nepal1.0558
110Pakistan424.6646
111Philippines481.0007
112Singapore499.4506
113Sri Lanka378.9083
114Thailand512.8868
115Vietnam431.6169
116Other Asia295.6907
117Asia728.2247
118People Rep. of China766.4654
119Hong Kong, China723.4259
120China766.0941
121Argentina366.9635
122Bolivia422.6551
123Brazil86.7654
124Colombia175.737
125Costa Rica55.7064
126Cuba1011.7124
127Dominican Republic589.3417
128Ecuador388.559
129El Salvador223.059
130Guatemala285.6792
131Haiti537.6167
132Honduras331.8396
133Jamaica710.6934
134Netherlands Antilles707.0551
135Nicaragua460.0844
136Panama297.8238
137Peru289.0675
138Trinidad and Tobago699.6519
139Uruguay80.9884
140Venezuela264.3765
141Other Non-OECD Americas252.2551
142Non-OECD Americas196.5435
143Bahrain639.8849
144Islamic Rep. of Iran564.6244
145Iraq1002.8367
146Jordan565.5062
147Kuwait842.0723
148Lebanon708.8088
149Oman793.6521
150Qatar494.0038
151Saudi Arabia736.7833
152Syrian Arab Republic594.338
153United Arab Emirates597.8194
154Yemen654.8022
155Middle East674.2195
156European Union - 27347.2322

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Carbon footprint

A carbon footprint, is the total mix of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced by human activity, such as the creation of a product, electricity, heat, trip, event or food. The unit measure used is carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) or 100-year global warming potential (GWP100).
The calculation of the carbon footprint depends on many factors, for example the same object produced in a different way can have two footprints completely different.

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References


iea.org
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petrol
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diesel_fuel

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Reported by:   TOP100-SOLAR